Quality certification of FMSEs products is one of the major challenges in Nepal.
Limited accessibility in many parts of Nepal also hinders development and subsequent income from FMSEs. Due to inaccessible terrain, most of the FMSEs in rural areas are only involved in raw material collection and primary processing and have to depend on improper marketing channels such as a long chain of unreliable intermediaries.
Poor availability and adoption of technologies are other limitations in FMSEs in Nepal.
FMSEs in Nepal lack a supportive policy and a suitable legal framework to emerge and flourish.
Unclear governance of forest resources hinders the development of forest-based FMSEs. Kunwar et al.
Based on the literature review and EDAs consultation, we undertook a SWOT analysis of FMSEs in Nepal to find out what internal and external factors affect FMSEs in the country and to identify seen and unseen hindrances in order to take the greatest possible advantages of opportunities available in the country (Table 2).
PRIVATE AND GOVERNMENT SECTORS INVOLVEMENT IN FMSEs IN NEPAL
Private and government agencies have been involved in the promotion of FMSEs in Nepal to some extent for a long time although their success has not yet been evaluated properly.
Similarly, the Government of Nepal is also involved in the promotion of FMSEs through the Department of Cottage and Small Industries (DCSI).
IMPLEMENTING APPROACHES FOR THE PROMOTION OF FMSEs AND ITS MODALITY IN NEPAL
Given considerable regional variations in the nature and composition of FMSEs trade, Edwards (1996) recommends addressing location specific needs with suitable institutions and intervention approaches.
Most of the organizations in Nepal, working for livelihood improvement through micro enterprises such as FMSEs, have adopted SLA in their program design.