FNBWFirst Null Beamwidth
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The reported and adjusted increase in both margin percentage and dollars over the third quarter of 2015 reflected the ongoing impact of the recent successful FNBW and Alliance acquisitions, strong organic growth and an improved balance sheet mix.
A multi-objective optimization, such as a tradeoff between PSLL and FNBW, is effectively summarized by a Pareto front [19, 20].
Pareto fronts that reveal the uniquely different tradeoff that each case provides between PSLL and FNBW are presented in Figures 9(a) and 9(b).
(d) When the HPBW is fixed, to reduce the power leakage outside the HPBW, narrow the FNBW as much as possible by defining the region outside HPBW all as the sidelobe region.
Since for all values of T < 0 the contribution to the fitness function is 0, this method is also inappropriate for obtaining the perfect desired FNBW.
Compared with the conventional nine-ring CCRA in [21], the time-modulated individual [C.sup.1] has much lower PSLL whilst it has acceptable PSBL, though the FNBW becomes little larger.
To optimize the conflicting parameters, i.e., SLL, SRL and FNBW in TMLAA, the fitness function is defined as
Clearly, here our objective is to obtain a pattern whose SLLs are less than the tapered sidelobe masks and the FNBW is almost equal to 10[degrees].
In Table 2 SLL, FNBW, and nulls depth at [[theta].sub.1] = 30[degrees], [[theta].sub.2] = 32.5[degrees], and [[theta].sub.3] = 35[degrees] are shown.
Design parameters FA PSO Pencil Pencil Pencil Pencil beam 1 beam 2 beam 1 beam 2 SLL Desired -24.0000 -28.0000 -24.000 -28.0000 (dB) Obtained -22.7574 -24.4177 -21.7951 -23.5566 HPBW Desired 5.0000 7.0000 5.0000 7.0000 (degree) Obtained 6.0000 6.2000 5.8000 6.0000 FNBW Desired 12.0000 16.0000 12.0000 16.0000 (degree) Obtained 14.8000 16.4000 14.4000 15.6000 Table 3.
In this paper, we consider designing antenna arrays with the low maximum sidelobe level (MSL) at a fixed first null beamwidth (FNBW).