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Most of the orthopaedic surgeons normally fix FNFs by using three screws in apex proximal triangular configuration.
In patients who underwent cannulated cancellous screw fixation for FNFs, six different types of screw configurations were found: Triangular configurations, consisting of two parallel screws with a third screw placed either superiorly, inferiorly, anteriorly or posteriorly; and linear configurations with two or three screws in a vertical line.
Femoral Neck Fractures (FNF) is commonly observed in the elderly population after a simple fall or minor trauma.
Complications are usually manifold in FNF. In spite of near normal fixation, angular displacements, malunion and nonunion are commonly seen in FNF, and certain complications like AVN are very difficult to treat and often feared.
If the bone fragment is rotated during reduction or insertion of the fixatives, blood vessels will be blocked, leading to AVN, which is one of the most common complications of FNFs, the frequency of occurrence of which has been reported as 15-40%.9 Avascular necrosis is also affected by the time from fracture to operation, and the preservation of the remaining blood vessels during the time between the initial injury and the internal fixation determines the destiny of the femoral head.18-19 Manninger et al19 advised that fixing the bones within six hours after fracture is important.
Objective: We wanted to analyze the factors affecting the results of multiple cannulated screws fixation in patients less than 60 years old with femoral neck fracture (FNF).
Femoral neck fracture (FNF) is likely to develop into conditions that require hip joint replacement even after appropriate treatment due to complications, such as avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN) and nonunion.1-3 Studies have been conducted on various factors related to the high frequency of complications, and they have reported pattern of the fracture, the accuracy of reduction, and the locations of metal implants, the degree of crushing of the posterior cortical bone, and the time interval between being injured and undergoing an operation.2,4,5
Although joint replacement is presented as a good solution for elderly FNF patients as it facilitates early rehabilitation and reduces the risk of reoperation,6 techniques that preserve original joints are preferred for relatively younger patients.7-8
The morphology and structure of [C.sub.60] FNFs were characterized by using polarizing optical microscope (POM, Leica DM2500P), scanning electron microscope (SEM, JEOL, JSM-7500F), transmission scanning electron microscope (TEM, JEOL, JEM-2100), Raman spectroscope (Renishaw 2000 spectrometer, 785 nm laser), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FT-IR, Bruker, Hyperion 1000/2000).
Quite a lot of discussions expanded go around the formation mechanism of the 1D FNFs in the former research, and Miyazawa et al.
Compared with the pristine [C.sub.60] powder, no special shift of those peaks has been observed, especially for the [A.sub.g](2) mode, which is connected with intermolecular bonding and vastly used to discuss the structural and electronic properties of [C.sub.60] molecules [18], and this phenomenon reveals that crystallization but not polymerization has happened during the formation of FNFs [19].
Hereof, from Figure 4, for the XRD pattern of the fiber in air, it can be seen that FNFs prepared by this method are well crystallized with an FCC system with a cell dimension of a = 1.44 nm.