FNIM < African Canadian < South Asian < Chinese = White < Japanese.
This is a solid start in locating population groups within Canada's stratification system and in differentiating the conditions of FNIM peoples from those of visible minorities.
The sampling frame for Statistics Canada's APS was based on information about FNIM ancestry, treaty status, and status of living on or off a reserve, information contained in the 2001 Canadian census long form (administered to 20 percent of the population).
Respondents who claim FNIM ancestry but who did not select any of the three FNIM identities are designated as "nonidentifiers."
The APS permits us to assess the situation among Canadian youth who claim FNIM ancestry.
Inuit < FN on-reserve < FN off-reserve < Metis < FNIM non-identifiers.
First, while the review of the empirical literature supported the placement of FNIM on the outer periphery, visible minorities near the middle, and Whites at the central cultural core, it provided only fragmented information limited to economic outcomes and educational attainment.
Table 1 provides information from the APS on four aspects of FNIM conditions: economic and education (rows 1-3), retention and importance of aboriginal language (rows 4-6), participation in traditional food provisioning activities (rows 7-10), and indicators of cultural and community disintegration (rows 11-16).
The heterogeneity of the conditions of existence between the four groups of FNIM peoples is immense.
All four aspects of FNIM peoples' conditions of existence (labour market, language, livelihood pursuits, and community/cultural problems) are interlocked, and therefore locate the groups in terms of cultural centrality.
Inuit [approximately equal to] On-reserve FN < Off-reserve FN < Metis < No FNIM identity.
These inequalities mirror integration into the White culture, with the Inuit being least integrated and those claiming no FNIM identity most integrated.