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FOCJFunctional Overlapping Competing Jurisdictions
FOCJFerrari Owners Club Japan (automobile club; Japan)
References in periodicals archive ?
Because FOCJ are formed in order to minimize interjurisdictional spillovers and to exploit economics of scale, they would be able to provide public services at low cost.
FOCJ may also expose the politicians' cartel to competition by competent outsiders.
A federal web composed of FOCJ certainly would affect the role of the nation-states.
Four criticisms are often advanced against the proposal for establishing FOCJ.
In a federal system of FOCJ, each individual is a citizen of various jurisdictions.
In the FOCJ system, an individual is confronted with a multitude of suppliers of public services, which arguably makes life difficult.
As far as welfare-increasing coordination is concerned, its need would be reduced because the FOCJ would emerge in order to minimize externalities.
It has often been claimed that all forms of federalism, including FOCJ, undermine redistributional policies.
History does reveal, however, examples of jurisdictions similar to FOCJ.
In two countries, functional, overlapping, and competing jurisdictions currently exist, although they do not in all cases meet all the requirements of FOCJ.
Although this short account of the Swiss federal system at the local level shows that FOCJ are a practical possibility, they have still not been developed to their full extent.
Completely different kinds of FOCJ have developed in cyberspace.