Our artificial habitats were patterned after aquatic habitat that is encountered in lakes and reservoirs (Crowder & Cooper 1982; Anderson 1984; Dionne & Folt
1991; Schmitz et al.
We thank Brian McNeil and Paolo Fortina for help in spotting microarrays, and Kelvin So, Elise Nilsson, and Ulla Folt
for skillful technical assistance.
Carignan CC, Cottingham KL, Jackson BP, Farzan SF, Gandolfi AJ, Punshon T, Folt
CL, Karagas MR.
Bio-accumulation of various heavy metals in fish are related to several factors i.e., foraging behavior and feeding habits (Chen and Folt
, 2000), trophic status, metal source, distance of the organism from the contamination source and the presence of other ions in the milieu (Giesy and Wiener, 1977) physico-chemical properties of the water (Wepener et al.,1992).
Regardless of geographical and seasonal differences in nutritional conditions, it is widely accepted that planktonic larvae are naturally subjected to intermittent periods of starvation or suboptimal prey availability due to the natural patchiness of plankton distribution in the oceanic environment (Pinel-Alloul, 1995; Folt
and Burns, 1999; Andersen and Nielsen, 2002).
, "The effects of mechanical degradation on rheological properties of elastomers," Rubber Chem.
Finally we thank Tim Ehlinger, Carol Folt
, Jeff Hutchings, Erica Nol, Brian Shuter, and Jim Sutcliffe for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this manuscript.
Authors would like to thank Brian Folt
, Tom Hess for assistance with field work and Greg Jennings, Jason Zink, and Zan Price for guidance on stream morphological determinations.
Chancellor Carol Folt
of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, who is an expert researcher in the impacts of climate change, added her voice to the summit by emphasizing the important role of the universities in fostering interdisciplinary thinking and a team-learning model when tackling complex scientific problems.