FONFFlag Officer Newfoundland (US Navy)
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Proactive FonF did occur during the observations and was built into the materials the instructors used.
She also confirmed what I had observed: FonF is a part of the content courses, but that generally FFEs target lexicon, while some reactive FFEs may at times deal with grammatical issues--specifically difficulties related to tense and mood.
When the two powerful input enhancers--NS' feedback and text chat--are combined into communicative tasks, a significant amount of incidental FonF shall be anticipated.
Therefore, researchers (e.g., Doughty & Williams, 1998 and Ellis, 2001) have proposed incidental FonF to be a method to integrate meaning-focused and form-focused instruction.
By September, Captain Mainguy, now acting as interim FONF, issued copies of "Denial Plans--Naval Installations, Equipment and Supplies" to the other service heads.
(73) The Dominions Office was equally critical of local naval authorities, concluding that the incident "reflect[ed] little credit on those in charge." (74) In fairness, the newly appointed FONF, Commodore H.E.
For details about the issues and limitations of implementing FonF in a classroom setting, see Doughty (2001).
Let us first look at reactive FonF. This is generally triggered by some breakdown in comprehension or production, which in turn prompts a variety of responses on the part of the teacher (or even another learner): from the implicit (e.g., a recast) to the explicit (e.g., overt correction).
As for pre-emptive FonF, as the name implies, this occurs when instructors plan to incorporate form focused activities that target particular structures/ vocabulary/ discourse forms, etc.
In this respect, our data may also be interpreted as further support for the claim that the combination of speaking and writing that characterizes collaborative writing tasks can be taken to be more powerful in promoting FonF than the oral production mode alone present in oral task performance (cf.
We mentioned above that Williams (2001) has claimed that "the effectiveness of FonF is ultimately determined by learner need" (pag.