* Benefits associated with FPDR noted by HCPs include improved medical decision making, improved communication with family members, improved understanding by family members of the seriousness of the child's condition, and improved satisfaction with the care provided by the team.
* Perceived benefits of FPDR for family members included feeling that family presence reminded the HCP of the personhood of the patient and the connectedness patients have to caring and concerned family members; the experience provided comfort and protection to loved ones; family presence was perceived as a spiritual experience (especially if the patient died), and thus, helped meet both emotional and spiritual needs of family members.
* HCPs with more experience, more contact with seriously ill children, or prior experience with FPDR are more likely to favor the practice of FPDR.
* There is a lack of written policies on FPDR in facilities surveyed.
* FPDR should be offered only when a dedicated trained support person (family facilitator) can be provided to support the family.
* HCP education has been shown to be effective in alleviating concerns of the potential negative consequences of FPDR and for developing strategies to effectively support this intervention in individual facilities.
(2003), the 18-item Canadian survey included questions about the demographic characteristics of the respondents and questions about the respondents' practices, preferences, and hospital/professional organization policies related to FPDR (Table One).
Practices and preferences for written policies regarding FPDR. The majority of CACCN respondents (92%) supported the option of FPDR, either with (60.6%) or without (31.4%) a written policy (Figure One).
Comparisons between nurses (n = 35; 8%) who, irrespective of a written policy or not, preferred to prohibit FPDR, with nurses supporting FPDR (n = 415, 92%) were undertaken to determine if there were significant differences between the two groups in relation to demographic characteristics; nursing experience; knowledge of existence of CACCN position statement; and previous exposure to requests by family members to be taken, or having taken family members to the bedside during a resuscitation.
The existence of formal guidelines/policies for FPDR. Only 8% of the nurses reported that a written guideline/policy for FPDR was available in their hospital.
Level of awareness of Canadian critical care nurses regarding CACCN's FPDR position statement.
Comparison of American and Canadian critical care nurses surveys regarding FPDR. MacLean and colleagues (2003) undertook a mail-out survey of 1,500 members of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) and 1,500 members of the Emergency Nurses Association (ENA) to identify their policies, practices, and preferences for allowing family members to be present during CPR or invasive procedures.