The development of the FPQ took place in several stages.
Each student was instructed to give the FPQ to individuals from a certain ethnic background and within a certain age range to assure a sample with ethnic and age diversity.
Data analyses, including principal components factor analysis, were then performed, and the FPQ was revised.
We used the revised FPQ consisting of 134 items in 10 scales in the present study.
The current version of the FPQ (134 items, 10 scales) can be conceptualized as representing three more general domains of father presence.
The final scale included in the first domain of the FPQ assesses the adult child's perception of the mother's recognition of the father's importance.
The second domain of father presence measured by the FPQ, Beliefs about the Father, assesses other cognitive aspects of father presence.
The FPQ was administered to community samples in four cities located in the northeastern, southeastern, central plains, and northwestern regions of the United States.
These local faculty members in turn recruited students from their classes for a voluntary extra credit assignment and, as in the earlier study, instructed students to administer the FPQ to adults aged 18 and over.
Participants again filled out 3 x 5 cards with identifying information if they completed the FPQ and became eligible to enter a raffle to win $150.
In a few cases, individuals adopted in infancy filled out the FPQ and noted their adopted status.
The 134 items in the FPQ were divided into 10 scales.