O principal deles e a legislacao (subsidios e mandatos) adotados pelos paises membros, e sao as EURED e a Fuel Quality Directive (FQD
, adopted in 2009, requires fuel suppliers to reduce the carbon intensity of fuels by 6% by 2020, relative to 2010, by providing low-carbon fuels such as biofuels and "clean" electricity.
Both Ottawa and the Canadian province of Alberta, which contains the third largest proven oil reserve in the world, have been extremely vocal in their fight against the FQD
measures over the last years, embarking on extensive lobbying campaigns.
, crude oil derived from bitumen, shale oil, or coal would be far
The current version of 1998/70/EC Fuel Quality Directive (FQD
) prescribes in Article 7a: 6% as mandatory, additional 2% for other fuels like CCS and an extra 2% as voluntary.
The Transport and Environment (T&E) campaigning group objected that the Commission had failed to perform the required impact assessment or consultation and that the proposal would mean no EU regulation of fuel emissions after 2020: "Dropping the FQD
is dropping one law too many," it said ME supports ending the 2020 target of 10% renewables in transport because it promotes the use of biofuels with higher emissions than conventional oil.
"Unfortunately, the FQD
implementation measures, as currently drafted, are unscientific and discriminatory, would discourage disclosure, harm the European refinery industry and not achieve its environmental objective," Federal Natural Resources Minister Joe Oliver said in a statement, released on 13 November.
Dallas and his colleague, Alberta Minister for Environment and Sustainable Resource Development Diana McQueen, travelled to various member states (minus Brussels) between 28 September and October 5 to press Canada's position on the FQD
and dissuade EU countries from supporting the law.
Add to that the impact of EU legislation, specifically Article 7a of the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD
) concerning greenhouse gases, the refining BREF of the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED), concerning best practices, and carbon pricing.