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FQHEFractional Quantum Hall Effect
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Being byproducts of electron interaction, they come in a few flavors: (i) Downstream modes in composite edge channels of the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) regime; (ii) Upstream modes in the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) regime; and (iii) Zero energy Majorana states (localized or propagating quasi-particles), in non-abelian FQHE states and in 1d topological P-wave superconductors.
The Rutgers physicists further observed the collective behavior of the ultra-relativistic charge carriers in graphene through a phenomenon known as the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE).
The FQHE is seen when charge carriers are confined to moving in a two-dimensional plane and are subject to a perpendicular magnetic field.