first by the far-right paramilitary group FRAPH
(Front for the
With tacit support from Haiti's military, FRAPH
opened hundreds of outposts, and Constant seized the limelight, holding regular radio addresses and dramatic press conferences and rallies where he denounced the embargo and assailed Aristide for exacerbating class divisions.
After U.S.-backed rightists forced him from office, the CIA-funded FRAPH
(Haitian Creole for "hit") carried on the Macoute legacy, killing upwards of 4,000 civilians and raping untold numbers of women.
Louis-Jodel Chamblain, one of the principal leaders of the armed opposition, is a former death-squad leader and one of the founders of the brutal Front for the Advancement of Progress in Haiti (FRAPH
) that killed thousands of people between 1991 and 1994.
During the defakto period, Constant was chief of the "Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti" (FRAPH
), a paramilitary adjunct of the Haitian army responsible for the main menu of terroristic atrocities, including the massacre of Aristide supporters in the Raboteau area of the coastal town of Gonaives in 1994.
A State Department official told me that the United States was trying to give "recognized political parties as much training as possible so they can compete nationally." In fact, Washington has long tried to create a counterforce to Aristide's vast popular support--most preposterously back in the mid-1990s, when the American soldiers temporarily occupying the country were told by their commanders that a right-wing terrorist organization called FRAPH
was the "loyal opposition" to Aristide.
An atmosphere of terror existed as the army-backed paramilitary force, FRAPH
, (Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti) arbitrarily arrested and tortured Haitians.
There was no line between the "goodies" and the "baddies." The terrorist group, Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH
), more feared than the actual Haitian army, suddenly was "the loyal opposition" and considered a political party.