FRCM strengthening was proceeded as follows: (a) apply the cementitious matrix on the strengthening surface with a thickness of 5 mm by using a shotcrete machine; (b) place the FRP fabric on the matrix; and (c) apply the cementitious matrix with a thickness of 5 mm on FRP fabric.
Additionally, the strain values of the concrete, tensile steel bar, compression steel bar, and fabric of FRCM composite were measured by the strain gages installed at the midspan section of specimens.
All of the FRCM-strengthened specimens had fabric slippage in FRCM composite after the maximum load and were ultimately failed by the tensile fracture of the fabric followed by the concrete crushing of the compression zone.
In ACI 549 , the effective tensile strain level in the FRCM fabric attained at failure, [[epsilon].sub.fe], is limited to the design tensile strain of the FRCM fabric, [[epsilon].sub.fd], as defined in
Also, the effective tensile stress level in the FRCM fabric attained at failure, [f.sub.fe], in the FRCM composite is calculated in accordance with
As being different from the previous analytical studies [4-6, 12], FRCM material was utilised as confinement material around the critical cross-sections of the minaret.
FRCM material was supposed to be used as seismic strengthening material for masonry in order to increase the lateral strength.
In this study, for the three-dimensional finite element model of the minaret, SOLID 186 elements were utilised to model the dynamic behaviour of minaret model with and without FRCM reinforcement.
Fiber reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) use in strengthening of historical structures against earthquakes has gained importance recently.
The experimental evidence shows also that the confining FRP or FRCM jacket is not able to significantly affect the concrete behavior; before that the transversal deformation has produced the cracking of the concrete , that is, when x < 1.At the end of this first branch, the FRP or FRCM jacket-confining action became effective, and the stress-strain curve slope is determined by the transversal concrete to confining jacket relative stiffness; therefore the tangent elasticity modulus for x=1 is related to the effective stiffness of the confining system.
In order, to define different levels of confinement, the following notations are introduced for FRP- or FRCM confined columns: t = thickness of the reinforcing fiber, D diameter of confined concrete core; [E.sub.j] the elastic modulus of the fiber, [[rho].sub.f] = 4t/D; and [E.sub.t] = [[rho].sub.f][E.sub.f]/2, [K.sub.l] = [E.sub.l]/[f'.sub.c0] the so-called "confinement modulus" of the FRP jacket.
Spinella, "Elementi in calcestruzzo confinati con FRCM: analisi sperimentale per carichi monotonici," in Proceedings of the Associazione Italiana Cemento Armato e Precompresso, pp.