This approach soon generalized to the cosmological situation, where it was shown that, by applying the Clausius relation to the apparent horizon of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW
) universe, the Friedmann equation can be rewritten in the form of the first law of thermodynamics .
In order to confirm our proposal that the dark energy can be considered as a deformed scalar field, we firstly introduce the dynamics of the interacting and nonminimally coupled dark energy, dark matter, and gravity model in a spatially flat FRW
background and then perform the phase-space analysis to check whether it will provide the late-time stable attractor solutions implying the accelerated expansion phase of the universe.
In Section 2, we give a brief review and introduce a Painleve-type space-time metric for the FRW
universe and then investigate the Hawking radiation of massive bosons via tunnelling.
Here, we are interested in investigating the effects of the displacement vector field on the apparent horizon entropy of the FRW
universe and thus its thermodynamics.
The Philippine Consulate General in New York organized the first FRW
was started by the Philippine consulate general in New York in 2015 seeking to highlight Filipino restaurants, with 13 of them initially joining.
was started by the Philippine Consulate General in New York in 2015 and has since then generated buzz not only within the Filipino-American community but also in the mainstream U.S.
Now considering spatially flat FRW
universe, the first Friedmann equation is
In the previous work , it was shown that D'Eath and Halliwell's  quantization of the Dirac field in the closed FRW
cosmology satisfies requirements similar to those just mentioned in the scalar field context; namely, the complex structure chosen in  is invariant under the symmetries of the field equations (which of course include SO(4), the isometry group of the spatial sections) and admits a unitary implementation of the dynamics.
Filipino Restaurant Week, or FRW
2016 features 15 Filipino restaurants that offer fixed price three-course lunches and dinners ($25 and $35, respectively, not including taxes and gratuity) that showcase the best of Filipino cuisine.