Moderately high drug use and lack of acceptance that non-marital sex is common in the society have allowed the HIV epidemic to take hold in Pakistan, mainly among injection drug users (IDU), male, female and transvestite sex workers (MSW, FSW
, and TSW) as well as the repatriated migrant workers.
The case of mobile FSWs
in four high HIV prevalence states of India.
Among responders, there were 134 hijra sex workers (HSWs), 101 female sex workers (FSWs
), 104 jail prisoners with high risk behavior and 48 intravenous drug users (IDUs).
However, results from the 2012 survey indicate that despite targeted messaging, clients of FSWs
and truckers are not well-informed about HIV and STDs and continue to engage in practices that increase the risk of infection.
Members of the KPs include people who inject drugs (PWID), men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender persons, female sex workers (FSW
), and prisoners.
The sample for the beneficiaries was taken from the FSWs
and the living-with-HIV/AIDS individuals (LHIV) identified by the VOs.
In the current study, we conducted a survey among FSWs
in five cities in China to understand the scale of club drug use and assess its association with STI risk.
Nevertheless, the use of FSWs
may still contribute to the treatment of nasals.
male (MSWs), female (FSWs
), hijras (HSWS) sex workers and IDUs] has been on the rise in recent years and projection models have painted a bleak picture.12,13 It has been estimated that by 2015, the HIV prevalence is likely to reach 17 - 22% among MSWs/HSWs and 46 - 66% in IDUs of Karachi area and 44 - 49% in IDUs in Lahore.13
Eligible studies had to meet the following criteria: (1) be an original research study; (2) be written in English or in French; (3) report adolescents, adults, pregnant women, men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users (IDUs), or female sex workers (FSWs
); (4) include participants undergoing HIV tests; (5) use a quantitative method to assess return or failure to return for HIV test results; and (6) report a statistical association between a potential predictor/correlate and return or FTR.
In this study, vaginal swab and throat washing samples collected from 149 FSWs
were examined for the presence of M.
That single policy change resulted in "improved working conditions, reduction in police brutality, and empowerment of FSWs
[female sex workers]".