In fact, the ICPD in 1994 and FWCW
in 1995 affirmed the human rights of women in this area of health (18).
In recognising the ICPD and FWCW
as key processes concerning sexual and reproductive health rights, the statements made at the initial conferences and their subsequent review sessions (n = 27) were used to establish a set of baseline characterisations of the Holy See position on sexual and reproductive health rights.
The FWCW was part of a series of conferences that first began in 1975 in Mexico City during the International Year of the Woman.
In order to research transnational agenda-setting processes, I conducted a two year qualitative study of the process by which women's peace NGOs set agendas at the NGO Forum '95, the FWCW and its preparatory conferences.
Poverty may be "particularly acute for women living in rural households" (FWCW
, 2001, p.1), especially minority women, who are over represented among those living in poverty but are traditionally ignored in the literature (Saris & Johnston-Robledo, 2000).
A five-year review of the FWCW
in 2000 found, however, that although significant progress had been made in carrying out the 1995 platform, major obstacles remain to achieving greater opportunities for women in the environment and other sectors.
Mission Statement begins, tellingly, with the simple declaration that "The Platform for Action is an agenda for women's empowerment." It thus clarifies at the outset the U.N.
While the FWCW
was not, intended to be a conference on the state of women's rights in China, Mongella's enforced silence on China's abysmal human rights record set a tone that is unbecoming to the supposed compassion of women.
The whole concept of a rights-based approach to sexual and reproductive health, identification of 12 critical areas of concern where women's rights were being breached, including the right to health, and adoption of strategies for gender equality and women's human rights, were major accomplishments made in the Beijing Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW
) in 1995.
Appendices provide ready reference to the most relevant paragraphs of the international agreements and human rights instruments, like the Programme of Action, ICPD, Cairo, 1994; Platform for Action, FWCW
, Beijing, 1995; and selected articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, as well as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
* "Our movement" refers to the feminists who helped generate the outcomes of many UN agreements during the 1990s, especially the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, and the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW
) in Beijing, as well as many others who have defended those goals and are working in many and various ways to achieve them.
At the same time, key international conventions, such as the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo and the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW
) in Beijing, were making explicit links between women's reproductive health, women's rights and socio-economic development, and emphasising a broadened definition of reproductive health.