FWGE also inhibits the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDFI), a metabolic enzyme essential for using glucose carbons to make ribose through the pentose phosphate pathway mentioned above.
As an aside, there is no evidence that FWGE is contraindicated with high-dose vitamin C (HDVC) therapy, which depends upon adequate levels of G6PD prior to commencement.
Both apoptosis and the inhibitory effects on glycolysis from FWGE can probably be explained by looking at the effects that FWGE has on mitochondrial function.
As with other metabolic therapies, FWGE induces cancer cells to engage in oxidative phosphorylation via their mitochondria.
This latter effect of FWGE is present most efficiently in the ribosomal RNA fraction of tumor cells.
Finally, FWGE has remarkable effects on lipid synthesis and the oxidation of the first carbon of glucose through the oxidative steps of the pentose cycle.
A 2003 study that found colorectal patients who used FWGE in combination with their conventional cancer therapy resulted in an additional 82% reduction in tumor recurrences, a 67% reduction in metastasis, and a 62% reduction in deaths as opposed to those who just received conventional therapy (11)
A 2006 study on patients with oral cavity cancer that found that those taking FWGE extract experienced only a 4.