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Institutional theory: why small firms do not offer FWPs
Researchers often draw on institutional theory to explain why small firms are less likely to offer FWPs compared to large firms (Blair-Loy and Wharton 2002; Davis and Kalleberg 2006; Ollier-Malaterre 2009).
Employers in Canada are not legally required to offer FWPs but societal pressures to be "family-friendly" and supportive of employees' work-life needs are present.
Consideration, however, of the strong link between large firm size and the presence of equal reporting, formalization, HR personnel, and being attuned to other organizations, lead Davis and Kalleberg to argue that large firms receive greater scrutiny compared to small firms and this influences the establishment of FWPs. What is left unexplained is why some small firms do offer FWPs.
The likelihood of small firms offering FWPs may be lower compared to large firms, but flexibility is apparent among some small firms (Dex and Scheibl 2001; Ferrer and Gagne 2006; Lewis and Cooper 2005; Pohlmann and Dulipovici 2004).
In this paper, we consider this by asking, how do the past employment experiences of small IT owners affect firms' offering and facilitation of FWPs? A life course perspective is taken to examine this potential influence.
The life course of powerful individuals, however, has yet to be examined in the literature as a potential factor contributing to FWPs in small firms and should not be dismissed.
However, this is not a particular issue for the present study because FWPs are slow to change and because the analysis herein contributes theoretical insights into how FWPs are used and developed in small firms.
At least seven states, including Oregon, Wisconsin, and New Jersey, as well as the EPA itself, have been trying to build a performance-track program that would couple some of the facility-wide approaches explored in the FWP with some of the enforcement strategies of the Massachusetts ERP.
The programs assume that regulatory flexibility--and public recognition as an environmental leader--will inspire firms to make the kind of systematic review of their pollution reduction potential that New Jersey DEP staff had to supervise in the FWP project.
Seen with FWPS chief executive John Taylor (centre) are, from left, Bob Whelan (FWPS), Steve Currie (NatWest Development Capital), Chris Bourne-Hallet (BDO), Roger Buckley (BDO), Paul Tebbs (FWPS), David Jackson (FWPS), Guy Green (Eversheds) and Ian Howey (Fortis Bank)
Currently, the WGS offers cash for expanding or creating new woodlands and the FWPS provides compensation to farmers for agricultural income foregone as a result of converting some of their land to woodland.
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