Compared with the FZT of the CON group, the FZTs in the injury groups showed obvious changes.
Chronic BTJ injury often results in poor collagen fiber alignment, tendon cell degeneration, hypervascularity and changes in the cell density and FZT (Nakama et al., 2005; Pecina et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2010).
Recent findings from an investigation in northern Vietnam (4,15,17) revealed high rates of FZT transmission, especially in fish nurseries, where FZT prevalence among stocked FZT-free fish fry increased to 14.1%, 48.6%, and 57.8% after 1 week, 4 weeks, and when overwintered in ponds, respectively.
Our study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent FZT transmission in nurseries in northern Vietnam.
The FZT was significantly different between the PIERT and AI groups (213.52 (57.42) [micro]m vs.
Chronic BTJ injury often results in poor collagen fibre alignment, tendon cell degeneration, hypervascularity, changes of cell density and FZT (Nakama et al., 2005; Pecina et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2010).
FZT infections in fry were examined by placing 5 fry on a glass slide, compressing them with another slide, and then examining for trematodes under a stereo microscope (x4) and a compound microscope (x100).
Descriptive analyses of FZT infection in fry and juveniles were conducted by frequency distribution.
Recent studies conducted in Nghe An Province, a major area for freshwater aquaculture in Vietnam, found prevalence of FZT in humans to be low (0.6%) and prevalence in fish from farms to be high (>35%) (5,6).
The study was conducted in November 2005 in Nghe An Province, northern Vietnam (Figure 1), in fish-farming households previously investigated for human and fish FZT infections (5,6).
Public health and agricultural/fishery agencies should consider intestinal and liver flukes as an FZT complex because they share most biologic features and are risk factors for human infection.
The relationship between prevalence and intensity of infection and age of the host is also a characteristic of FZT epidemiology (1,4).