Female sex workers
(FSWs) are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
For both types of female sex worker
, we calculated 95% confidence intervals for estimates of the proportion with unmet need.
A gold-standard population data source, such as a census, does not exist for men who have sex with men, female sex workers
, or people who inject drugs.
Female sex workers
are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HPV and hence cervical cancer.
The economic component to the relationship between the male tourist and the female sex worker
cannot be underestimated, despite the seemingly genuine experience that the consumer reports from their interactions.
It is estimated that in Indonesia there are between 190,000-270,000 female sex workers
, and between 7-10 million men who are clients of sex workers.
Unprotected anal sex with multiple partners was the norm in this group; HIV infection rose from 0 in 1993 to 0.8 percent in 1995,34 putting it higher than prevalence among female sex workers
(10.) Van Damme L et al., Effectiveness of COL-1492, a nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel, on HIV-1 transmission in female sex workers
: a randomized controlled trial, Lancet, 2002, 360(9338):971-977; and Wilkinson D et al., Nonoxynol-9 spermicide for prevention of vaginally acquired HIV and other sexually transmitted infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials including more than 5000 women, Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2002, 2(10):613-617.
Key Words: condom use, female sex workers
, male clients, sexual intercourse, Bangladesh
The first, carried out at 34 sex establishments in Santo Domingo, encouraged solidarity among female sex workers
, sex establishment owners and managers, and other employees (such as disc jockeys, bartenders, and doormen) to commit to consistent condom use in the establishments.
Societal changes are also reflected in the sex industry as some female sex workers
now enter their professions by choice, Yamamoto said.
Of 32 African female sex workers
, 20 showed evidence of a diverse HIV population when their HIV infection was first documented, suggesting that initial transmission of HIV in women involves multiple variants.