Steinberg, "Focal adhesion kinase
(FAK) perspectives in mechanobiology: implications for cell behaviour," Cell and Tissue Research, vol.
Porcelli et al., "Hepatic stellate cells induce hepatocellular carcinoma cell resistance to sorafenib through the laminin-332/[alpha]3 integrin axis recovery of focal adhesion kinase
ubiquitination," Hepatology, vol.
Focal Adhesion Kinases
and Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases Regulate Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Stallion Sperm.
For instance, integrin binding to the ECM induces focal adhesion kinase
(FAK) to become phosphorylated at tyrosine 397 ([pFAK.sup.397]) which activates other downstream targets to regulate focal adhesions and other cellular responses .
Haimovich, "Phosphorylated a-actinin and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B coregulate the disassembly of the focal adhesion kinase
Src complex and promote cell migration," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Nagy et al., "Mammary epithelial-specific ablation of the focal adhesion kinase
suppresses mammary tumorigenesis by affecting mammary cancer stem/progenitor cells," Cancer Research, vol.
They function as heterodimers, which consist of 18a and 8[sz] subunits, and bind noncovalently to mediate cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions.[sup],, The [sz]1-integrins, which bind to laminin, are expressed in several cell types.[sup],, They can sense mechanical stimuli, mediate mechanical force transfer across the cell surface and through their interconnections with focal adhesion kinase
(FAK), and transduce into biochemical signals to regulate cell behavior.[sup], [sz]1-integrin-mediated FAK signaling contributes greatly to cell survival in the engagement of pathways such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3-K/AKT).
The activation and expression of mitogen activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-[kappa] B (NF-[kappa] B), protein kinase B (Akt), Src, and focal adhesion kinase
(FAK) were analyzed by Western blot.
Hydrogen peroxide stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase
in vascular endothelial cells.
Among their topics are natural-based and stimuli-responsive polymers for tissue engineering, focal adhesion kinase
in cell-material interactions, complex cell-materials microenvironments in bioreactors, polymer therapeutics as nano-sized medicines for tissue regeneration and repair, and functionalized mesoporous materials with gate-like scaffolding for controlled delivery.
The investigators also showed that galangin achieved an antimetastatic effect in vivo in C57BL/6J mice, reducing focal adhesion kinase
. They concluded that focal adhesion kinase
is a viable target in melanoma therapy, with B16F10 melanoma metastasis apparently checked by galangin in mice and in cell cultures (J.