This instrument was developed using an evidence-centered design approach that began with content domain analysis using the GAISE framework, the statistics content in the CCSSM, and learning trajectories from research on students' learning in statistics (Haberstroh et al., 2015).
The SETS instrument is aligned with the GAISE framework and reflects statistics content PSMTs are expected to teach.
An earlier version of this instrument with 26 items aligned with Levels A and B of GAISE was validated to measure K-8 preservice teachers' self-efficacy for teaching statistics (Harrell-Williams, Sorto, Pierce, Lesser, & Murphy, 2014b).
For the open-ended portion, in each GAISE level, PSMTs were asked to identify an item which they felt least confident to teach and an item which they felt most confident to teach and to explain their reasoning.
Descriptive statistics were computed and paired-samples t tests were used to test for differences of PSMTs' statistical knowledge between GAISE Levels B and C.
As assumptions of normality and sphericity were not validated, a repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for significant differences in PSMTs' statistics teaching efficacy between the three GAISE levels.
The main aim of statistics education reform is to help students develop statistical reasoning abilities as well as positive self-beliefs about and attitudes toward statistics (Cobb, 1992; GAISE College Report, 2005; Moore, 1997).
The GAISE College Report has summarized the reform strategies as follows: (1) an emphasis on statistical reasoning and thinking, (2) the use of real data, (3) an emphasis on conceptual understanding rather than on mere knowledge of procedures, (4) an increased use of active learning methods, (5) the use of technology for clarifying abstract concepts and the automation of data analysis, and (6) the use of feedback-oriented assessments to evaluate and improve students' learning.
The GAISE, however, urge the development of both students' cognitive and affective behaviors through an integrated approach to teaching of statistics.
An outline of the course in terms of goals, content, pedagogy, technological use, and assessment vis-a-vis GAISE is given below.
This study showed that the ability to reason with statistical ideas and the efficacy for accomplishing such tasks increased after taking an introductory statistics course aligned with the GAISE recommendations.