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A galled fastener may not be able to achieve the necessary pre-load -- especially in case of dynamic loading.
Galled fasteners are also much more susceptible to corrosion, which can ultimately result in breakages.
Gall inventory: Galls were sampled by three methods.
Samples of galls were collected in plastic bags for later examination in the laboratory while plants were identified in situ or, when necessary, plant samples were collected for later identification.
Animal-induced galls, the zoocecidia, may develop on all plant organs, under the stimuli of gall-inducing organisms (the cecidozoa) (Mani, 1964; Meyer & Maresquelle, 1983; Roskam, 1992; Stone & Schonrogge, 2003; Oliveira et al., 2016).
* Cecidium (plural: cecidia): gall (plural: galls).
Inquilines and cecidophages are incapable of producing their own galls but feed off gall tissues (Mani 1964).
yanoniella from China and Japan, and all of them form galls on their primary host plant Rhus chinensis.
Native cynipid parasitoids are able to rapidly adapt to new exotic hosts; as a result host shift events may occur and even changing in parasitoid behaviour [8] showed how galls of invading cynipid species in Britain have become the main hosts of local parasitoid populations.
Keywords: Gall bladder, niemeier classification, perforation.