GCBTGreat Canadian Bicycle Tours (Canada)
GCBTGranular Cell Brain Tumors
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* The patient maintains a regular daily rhythm and is able to participate in eight GCBT sessions held once a week;
Figure 1 provides an overview of GCBT. Our GCBT protocol/program is based on the individual CBT protocol developed by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in 2009.
There were 35 participants aged 18-62 years who not only met the inclusion criteria but also participated in GCBT during the period from June 5, 2012 to October 21, 2014.
Depression was evaluated as a primary outcome because, generally speaking, anxiety disorder patients no longer exhibit pathological anxiety by the time they are well enough to participate in the GCBT. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), which is accepted worldwide as a highly useful depression screening instrument, was used for the evaluation of depression.
Both surveys and neuropsychiatric medication were carried out before and after the course of GCBT sessions, as summarized in Figure 1.
The comparison of pre-GCBT and post-GCBT CES-D scores of all 32 cases by means of Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed significantly lower CES-D scores after the therapy, thus indicating that GCBT may be effective in alleviating depression (Z = 4.14, p < 0.01, r = 0.732).
Patients scored significantly higher on the "vigor" (V) subscale and exhibited increased levels of vitality after GCBT (Z = -2.01, p < 0.05).
Similarly, the comparison of post GCBT test scores between F3 and F4 groups revealed no significant differences on any of either the CES-D items or POMS subscales.
Although several studies have focused on the effectiveness of GCBT in alleviating depression, only a few studies have addressed how GCBT might help patients in other mood states.
These findings, along with similar results published overseas (4,5) as well as in Japan (7-9), suggest that GCBT could also be effective in alleviating depression.
There are no studies that evaluated GCBT in patients with major depressive disorder or anxiety disorder and evaluated their effects using POMS.
An improvement in the "vigor" subscale scores after GCBT can be attributed to two reasons: (1) reflecting on past experiences through cognitive restructuring helps alleviate the participants' psychological burden, and (2) preparing and implementing an action plan help improve motivation and activeness in participants.