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Interaction effect of genetic polymorphisms in glucokinase (GCK) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) on metabolic traits in healthy chinese adults and adolescents.
Of the 9 genes, three (TCF7L2, PPARG2, and PPARGC1A) were related to carbohydrate metabolism, two (APOA5, GCKR) to triglycerides metabolism, one (LDLR) to cholesterol metabolism, one (MTHFR) to folate metabolism, and two (FTO, MC4R) to energy metabolism.
In addition rs662799 (T>C) in APOA5; rs1260326 (C>T) in GCKR; rs9939609 (T>a) in FTO; rs17782313 (T>C) near MC4R were genotyped.
In analyses using CRP, TRIB1, GCKR, and APOA5 genotypes, the analytical strategy was similar.
Finally, we examined 3 other genetic variants in TRIB1, GCKR, and APOA5 that also affect concentrations of nonfasting triglycerides (see online Supplemental Fig.
 Human genes: LPL, lipoprotein lipase; CRP, C-reactive protein, pentraxin-related; TRIB1, tribbles pseudokinase 1; GCKR, glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator; APAA5, apolipoprotein A-V; APOC3, apolipoprotein C-III.
Tao et al., "Genetic variation in the GCKR gene is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese people," Molecular Biology Reports, vol.
"Our findings confirm that obese youths with genetic variants in the GCKR and PNPLA3 genes may be more susceptible to fatty liver disease," said Santoro, who is cautious about automatically extending this observation to the overall population.
(64), who found that fasting-glucose-increasing alleles of the MADD, gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor (GIPR), GCK, FADS, DGKB, PROX1, TCF7L2, SLC30A8, and C2CD4B were associated with either abnormal insulin processing or secretion, whereas GCKR and IGF1 were associated with oral glucose tolerance test-based disposition indices and [beta]-cell function (64).
GCKR, first identified in the Diabetes Genetics Initiative study (32) along with IGF1 variants (rs780094 and rs35767), was found in the MAGIC study to be associated with fasting insulin and higher insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (55).
They have succeeded for the first time in associating variants in the well-known diabetes risk genes MTNR1B and GCKR with changes in the metabolism.
Loci related to metabolic-syndrome pathways including LEPR, HNF1A, IL6R, and GCKR associate with plasma C-reactive protein: the Women's Genome Health Study.
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