In neuroblastoma tumors, GD2 is expressed in neuroblastic cells, but not in Schwannian stromal cells, at a high level  and along with ganglioside GD3
is involved in adhesion of tumor cells to the extracellular matrix .
When hTSCs were differentiated toward osteoblasts, a 1.6- and 2.8-fold increase of GM3 and GM1 gangliosides was observed, respectively, as well as a 3.7-fold decrease of GD3
, as compared to proliferating undifferentiated cells.
2011) 50, 250, 1,250 GD0-PND21 This study 0.5, 50 GD3
.5-PND22 Paper Exposure route Strain, species (Cabaton et al.
8 at GD2 (or GD3
)--current electrode and GD3
discussed the interaction between mitochondrial raft-like microdomains and disialoganglioside GD3
in the regulation of cell apoptosis.
In the case of the GSLs in malignantly transformed cells, the expression of gangliosides, sialic acid-containing GSLs, is enhanced.(11,12) In particular, gangliosides GM3 and GD3
are characteristic of many aggressive tumors such as melanomas and neuroblastomas.