Next, we confirm the statistical inference with respect to H1 and H2 in alternative specifications where we use two alternative controls to Rule of Law--Control of Corruption (WGI measure) and, independently, the log of host country's GDP per capita (GDPC
Table 1 Variable Description Source FDI Foreign Direct WDI Investment (2010) GDPC
Gross domestic WDI product per (2010) Capita TRADE Trade WDI (2010) POP Population WDI (2010) Table 2 ADF and PP for unit root tests and first differences of log levels of variables.
The Relationship Between U5MR and the Independent Variables (Univariate Analysis) Covariate Coefficients SE Z P Value CSA -0.43 0.09 -4.98 < .0001 TA -0.01 0.00 -3.80 < .0001 HDI -408.43 17.14 -23.82 < .0001 GDPc
-0.03 0.00 -7.15 < .0001 MVC -1.21 0.09 -13.72 < .0001 CPI -16.96 5.87 -2.89 < .0001 Time -2.36 0.11 -20.54 < .0001 Abbreviations: CSA, child-specific articles; TA, total articles; HDI, human development index; U5MR, under-five mortality rate; GDPc
: gross domestic production per capita (constant US$2000); MVC, measles vaccination coverage; CPI, corruption perception index; SE, standard error.
The first model (1) includes GDP, DAT, RULC, MOB and GVF and we added ROADF (model 2), ELC (model 3) and GDPC
The addition of GDPC
, as a control variable, did not significantly alter the effects of cultural dimensions on GCI.
Remaining A 10% increase in middle-income (2009) countries (low- broadband countries and middle-income penetration developing contributed 1.38% economies) from a to economic sampling of 120 growth countries, 1980-2002 Table 2--Subscriber market shares across telecommunications platforms in Senegal (2010) Local Broadband Wireless Sonatel 100% 97.41% 60.41% Tigo Senegal 27.96% Others 2.59% 11.63% Total 100% 100 % 100% Source: France Telecom Table 3--Results of mobile telephony model Variables Mobile model Growth ([GDP.sub.it]) 0.416 *** Labour force ([L.sub.it]) 0.615 *** Fixed Capital Stock ([K.sub.it]) 0.044 * Mob Penetration ([Mob_Pen.sub.it]) -- Constant Demand ([Mob_Pen.sub.it]) GDPC
([GDPC.sub.it]) 0.165 Mob.
The four series are real GDP (GDPC
), the GDP price deflator (GDPDEF), nominal personal consumption expenditures (PCEC), and nominal fixed private investment (FPI).
Table 1 Description of Dependent and Independent Variables Variable GDPc
Gross Domestic Product per capita, PPP adjusted (Current International Dollars) I Investment as a share of GDP (%) OPENNESS Trade Openness as a share of GDP (%) EDUCATION Gross enrolment rate in secondary education (%) IBS Innovation and Business Sophistication Score ETHICS Ethical behavior of firms Illegal Corruption DISTANCE FROM Absolute Latitude EQUATOR FRACTIONALIZATION Religious Fractionalization Description GDPc
GDP per capita (PPP adjusted) is the gross domestic product divided by midyear population converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.
where: [R.sub.pr] is the relative price ratio (price parity) between the two groups of goods (food and non-food products), GDPc
is the GDP per capita, [B.sub.1] and [B.sub.0] are independent variable and constant factor coefficients.
Las variables evaluadas fueron a) ganancia de peso total (GTPC)/tratamiento durante el confinamiento; b) ganancia de peso diario (GDPC
)/tratamiento durante el confinamiento; c) ganancia de peso total (GTPP)/tratamiento durante el pastoreo; d) ganancia de peso diario (GDPP)/tratamiento durante el pastoreo; e) conversion de materia seca consumida durante el confinamiento y f) analisis economico.
They estimate their model using per capita gross domestic product (GDPC
) as the indicator of national economic development and, following Morris (1979), they construct a composite measure of human development, the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI), by combining national infant mortality, life expectancy, and literacy rates.