federal government), a staggering $16.4 trillion or 109% of GDPF
! (21,24) Given these historic conditions, there is simply no way the federal government can indefinitely prolong the trend in healthcare spending.
= annual real GDP growth rates (ln) for country j for time t,
= 0.41 (GDPCA) + 0.06 (GDPFR) + 0.10 (GDPGY) + 0.33 (GDPJP) + 0.10 (GDPUK) where the variables in parentheses are real GDP values in 1990 prices for Canada; France, Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom, respectively, recalibrated in terms of U.S.