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Only 19% of recently planted certified material had single infections and of those 79% were GRBV, a recently discovered virus, 15% were GLRaV-3, an insect transmitted virus and 4% were GFLV, a nematode-transmitted virus.
The objective of this study was to determine the GFLV in vineyards using the serological and biological methods and to identify the regions where the virus has spread in Adana and Mersin provinces in Turkey.
All the samples were tested for the presence of GFLV using the double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) tests as described by Clark and Adams .
In this study, mechanical inoculations were made using 57 plant samples known to be infected with GFLV. Nicotiana benthamiana Domin., N.
Then, leaves of these plants were checked by the DAS-ELISA whether they had been infected by GFLV. The experiments were carried out in the laboratory and climate room of the University of Cukurova, Turkey.
Of these, 63 samples infected with GFLV were detected by DAS- ELISA.
Os oligonucleotideos e as sondas utilizados nas reacoes de RT-PCR em tempo real foram desenhados com base em trabalhos publicados: GRSPaV, GVA, GVB (OSMAN & ROWHANI, 2008); GLRaV-2, GLRaV-3, GLRaV-4 (OSMAN et al., 2007); GFkV e GFLV (DUBIELA et al., 2013).
Em geral, os virus avaliados encontravam-se amplamente disseminados nas duas regioes amostradas, ZM e VSF, respectivamente, GRSPaV, 80% e 35%; GVA, 100% e 61%; GVB, 2% e 4%; GLRaV-2, 12% e 2%; GLRaV-3, 62% e 37%; GLRaV-4, 90% e 61%; GFkV, 32% e 59%; GRVFV, 0% e 47% e GFLV, 0% em ambas regioes.
O unico virus nao detectado no levantamento foi o GFLV, que, normalmente, apresenta baixa incidencia no Brasil (LIMA & FAJARDO, 2012).
GLRaV-3, GLRaV-4, GVA e GVB sao transmitidos de maneira semipersistente por cochonilhas, enquanto o GFLV e transmitido por nematoides e GRSPaV, GLRaV-2, GFkV e GRVFV ainda nao tem vetores conhecidos.
Now, with the help of genetic engineering, researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME in Aachen in Germany, are making certain plants resistant to GFLV.
Essas plantas nao apresentaram infeccoes com as especies virais GVA, GVB, GFkV, GFLV e GLRaV-1, ja relatadas no Brasil, tampouco com GVD, ArMV, GLRaV-4, GCMV e RSPaV (estirpe PN), ainda nao relatadas no pais.
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