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The few women who were deemed "suitable" to be the first women GFOs were appointed by senior leaders in their respective services, and did not require Congressional approval, as they do now.
As a result of the occupational closures of the 1940s through 1960s, the earliest cohorts of women show a higher percentage of nurses and support GFOs. This is especially true in the reserve components, as there were far greater restrictions for women in the reserves and National Guard than there were for women in the regular military.
Table 2 shows the breakdown of women GFOs by year group cohort and branch of service.
The Navy has the lowest completion rate of JPME, at 62% for regular female Navy Admirals and only 11% for reserve Navy GFOs. This is in comparison to 100% of Army Generals, 77% of Air Force Generals and 100% of Marine Corps Generals.
A majority (7 of 11, 63%) of the women GFOs who came into the military in the 1940s participated in either the European or Pacific combat theaters of World War II, and 5 of 7 were nurses.
Although a great percentage of women participated in the first Gulf War, that conflict was over so quickly that few of the GFOs selected from the 1970s and 1980s cohorts participated (15%).
Command can be the difference between a successful career and a non-successful career, and is a very important part of being or becoming a GFO. Overall, over 86% of all female GFOs have had at least one command, and many have had multiple successful command positions at various levels of rank and responsibility.
One may wonder why, if command is so important, some GFOs did not have command.
Although the American family is changing from the stereotypical "nuclear family" ideal of the 1950s, many of the women GFOs in this study came from such a family.
The colonisation of GFOS by plants supported higher microbial populations (Fig.
In the absence of vegetation, GFOS was dominated by the genus Aspergillus but, under litter, the number of genera increased and Penicillium spp.
However, GFOS, which had over 10 times more microorganisms than the colluvial soil, had approximatly the same FDA activity.
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