The findings are from GHAA
's sixth annual HMO Market Position Report, based on a scientifically drawn random sample of 50 plans with 5.8 million members nationwide.
WASHINGTON--At least a dozen states have enacted legislation that bans health maintenance organizations (HMOs) from barring nonparticipating pharmacies from HMO networks if such pharmacies are willing to meet the conditions that have been established by the HMOs, says the Group Health Association of America (GHAA
Empirical evidence points to the success of HMOs in reducing costs of in-patient care, especially through lowering hospitalization rates (GHAA
1990; Luft 1981; Manning, Leibowitz, Goldberg et al.
The Group Health Association of America (GHAA
) reported that nationwide enrollment in HMOs reached 34.7 million in 1989, an increase of 2.1 million over the preceding year.
"Physician Satisfaction in Group Practice: A Comparison of Primary Care Physicians with Specialists." Ghaa
Journal 7 (1): 50-9.
The information in the 1991 report card was obtained from a telephone interview of employees, using a questionnaire adapted from the Group Health Association of America (GHAA
"Physician Decision Making: Effects of HMO Model Type and Characteristics of Medical Practice on Utilization." GHAA
Journal 8(2):43-52, Winter 1987-88.
Satisfaction with access to care was assessed with the Group Health Association of America (GHAA
) Satisfaction Survey (Davies and Ware 1991), a scale based on the average of 11 statements that use a 1-5 response scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree).