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Yet, a recent retrospective observational study was carried out to assess the efficacy of postoperative thiopurine therapy in 77 patients with GIBD; although a lower postoperative recurrence was found in patients who received thiopurines than those taking 5-ASA, the rates of reoperation, readmission, and death were not significantly different between the 5-ASA and thiopurine groups [66].
To the best of our knowledge, IVIg have so far been evaluated in few patients with GIBD. In this regard, the efficacy of IVIg has been reported in a patient with BD-related colitis who initially had failed under CC and immunosuppressive therapy [19], as well as in a patient with GIBD complicated by the presence of immune deficiency [74].
The administration schedule of IFX for treating GIBD is adopted from the regimen employed in the management of CD (5 mg/kg intravenous at weeks 0,2, and 6) [81].
Yet, a Korean multicenter retrospective study aimed at investigating the response to IFX in 28 patients with GIBD showed a clinical response rate of 64.3% with a clinical remission rate of 28.6% at week 4, following IFX infusion.
The efficacy of IFX in GIBD has also been corroborated by a retrospective cohort study on 15 patients with active disease refractory to conventional medications.
To date, few data are available regarding ADA efficacy in GIBD, although the proofs of its usefulness are increasing [86-88].
Interestingly 20% of patients achieved a complete remission, defined as global GI symptoms and endoscopic scores of 0, at weeks 24 and 52, suggesting that ADA was an effective therapy to induce and maintain clinical improvement and remission in patients with GIBD [91].
Less experience has been gained focusing on the management of GIBD with ETA treatment [93].
Although the employment of anti-IL-1 agents on various BD manifestations has been well-documented [95-97], limited data are available for their efficacy in GIBD, being represented only by single-case reports and small case series that describe a clinical amelioration of symptoms without a clear improvement of organic lesions [15-17].
In this regard encouraging results derive from several case reports describing HSCT in GIBD patients transplanted for accompanying haematological conditions.