The federal officials interviewed for this study indicated that, despite its financial woes, the federal government intended to set clear targets and goals for accomplishing such GLWQA requirements as completing RAPs and LaMPs.
TABLE 2 COA Implementation Issues Issue area Ontario Canada Timing and duration Renew for shorter term Renew COA before GLWQA, after next GLWQA every five years Governance Make RAP Steering Recognize RAP Steering structure Committee subordinate Committee's importance to Board of Review Citizen Probably not important More important, involvement required in COA by GLWQA
As mentioned above, Canada and Ontario negotiated the original (1971) COA prior to initiating GLWQA negotiations with the United States, and, until recently, negotiated renewals roughly every five years.
If COA is finalized before GLWQA negotiations begin, Canada could agree with the United States to do more than had been contemplated in COA.
This federal-provincial debate over the relative merits of negotiating a new COA before or after GLWQA revisions have been completed may have been mooted by other developments.
Public officials disagree over the desirability of citizen involvement, end over the extent to which public participation in COA activities is required, either by such existing documents as GLWQA or by precedent.
It may also reflect the growing strength of Canadian environmental groups, and suggest the likely shape of any future GLWQA negotiations.
Ontario's growing concern over the rising costs of GLWQA programs will surely be partially alleviated by Great Lakes 2000.
The apparent victory for the federal position on this issue was partially mitigated by an agreement that Canada would "consult fully" with Ontario on any proposed changes in GLWQA, and that the two governments will "confer" on modifications to COA, should a significant change occur in GLWQA.
If COA is truly an early indicator of Canada's preferences in future GLWQA discussions, the United States can expect strong pressures from Canada and Ontario for similar actions.
Further, Canadian diplomats and federal environmental officials believe that it has given Canada an effective tool for preparing for GLWQA negotiations with the United States.
While this could be due to the absence of the spur of an impending round of GLWQA negotiations, other, more important, factors seem to be responsible.