To model the outcome of the bargaining between a bargainer and the BA, the GNBS  which is a popular tool to model the negotiation between two participants  was employed in this study.
We considered price takers and bargainers in the models and formulated the negotiation between the BA and bargainers with GNBS. Through solving the two models numerically with PSO based algorithm, we developed several insights into the combined influences of demand forms, SD population structure, and negotiation on the SP's and the BAs equilibrium prices and expected revenues.
The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) poses a significant threat for global public health because of the limited therapeutic options for treatment.
Treatment against GNB was successfully stopped on the 37th day (Figure 1).
Cefoperazone has a broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive cocci (GPCs) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNBs).
The combination of sulbactam and cefoperazone showed better activity against various GNBs tested compared to cefoperazone alone [Table 3].
Overall, less than 10% of the gram-negative bacilli (GNB) sampled were antibiotic resistant, but approximately 25% of documented bacterial infections and approximately 80% of polymicrobial infections at the M.D.
The urinary tract was the most common venue for GNB (37%), followed by the bloodstream (20%), respiratory tract (19%), and soft tissue (8%).
Gram-positive bacteria (GPC) such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae and gram-negative bacteria (GNB
) like Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas (spp.), Acinetobacter spp., and Klebsiella spp.
Although the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB
) is the most potent stimulus for the production of TNF-alpha, this cytokine is also produced during infections by Gram-positive bacteria (the main sensitizing factors seem to be the peptidoglycans and theicoic acid, which are components of the bacterial cell wall, as well as exotoxins), viruses, fungi and protozoans [11,12].
Of the 189 meropenem-resistant GNB
evaluated, all isolates possessing a carbapenemase gene ([bla.sub.KPC], [bla.sub.NDM], [bla.sub.OXA-48-like], [bla.sub.IMP], [bla.VIM], blaSME, or blaIMl) by PCR or by the CDC reference panel were positive by the CIM (zone around meropenem disk of [less than or equal to] 8 mm), with the exception of 1 isolate of Proteus mirabilis possessing the [bla.sub.NDM] gene, which was indeterminate due to the swarming characteristics of this species.
aeruginosa infection in critically ill patients and to develop new antibiotics for infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB