GNRHRGonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor
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GnRHR is expressed in the anterior pituitary (Mertani et al., 1996) and is a member of the rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptor family (Naor and Huhtaniemi, 2013).
GnRHR binds with high affinity to GnRH on the pituitary gonadotrope's cell surface to stimulate the biosynthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, LH and follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH) from the anterior pituitary and then regulates gonadal function, including both synthesizing hormones and generating gametes(Millar et al.
GNRH1 and GNRHR are the most obvious candidate gene in the etiology of IHH.
For example, NMBR genetargeted drugs included Bombesin and Ranatensin; GNRHR was the target of Degarelix, Nafarelin, Cetrorelix, Goserelin, and Leuprolide; F2RL3 gene was related to Argatroban.
The results of blood hormones concentration obtained only after treatment period, GnRH content in the POA, GnRHR protein expression, and all examined genes expression were analysed using a two-way ANOVA, the examined factors were inflammatory state and AChE inhibitor treatment (Donepezil or Neostigmine).
Recent study found that intramuscular injection of 200 mg or 400 mg genistein did not change the expression of GNRHR of crossbred barrows (Clapper and Tomlin, 2012).
GNRH1 and GNRHR. GnRH plays a key role in the control of reproductive function (Figure 1).
Acute treatment with GnRH increases the expression of GnRHR mRNA in murine thymocytes [28].
GnRHR of Japanese flounder encodes a protein of 415 amino acid residues exhibiting the typical arrangement of the G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains.
Amongst others, mutations in GPR54 and GnRH receptor (GNRHR) are possible causes of HH.
Screening of known genes by Sanger sequencing: Known or strong candidate genes for IHH and Kallmann syndrome including GNRHR, GNRH1, LHB, FSHB, KISS1R, KISS1, TAC3, TACR3, KAL1, PROK2, PROK2R, and FGFR1 were screened by automated Sanger sequencing (5).