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Furthermore, albumin is an important factor in the GNRI formula and thus may potentially explain the relationship between GNRI and mortality among DFU patients undergoing LEA.
were the first to assess that GNRI was predictive of mortality in hospitalized elderly patients .
In the present study, we investigated the validity of GNRI for predicting all-cause death among DFU patients who underwent LEA.
As shown in Table 3, univariate analysis revealed significant association with mortality for the following variables: age (hazard ratio 1.053, 95% CI 1.027-1.079, and p < 0.001), cerebral vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.979, 95% CI 1.0703.662, and p = 0.016), coronary artery disease (hazard ratio 2.286, 95% CI 1.119-4.671, and p = 0.023), creatinine (hazard ratio 1.002,95% CI 1.001-1.004, and p = 0.008), eGFR (hazard ratio 0.986, 95% CI 0.977-0.994, and p = 0.001), and GNRI (hazard ratio 0.960, 95% CI 0.935-0.987, and p = 0.001).
As shown in Table 2, univariate analysis revealed that the following variables were significantly associated with mortality: age (hazard ratio 1.044, 95% CI 1.021-1.068, and p < 0.001), BMI (hazard ratio 0.918,95% CI 0.850-0.991, and p = 0.029), hypertension (hazard ratio 1.867, 95% CI 1.1213.109, and p = 0.016), hemoglobin (hazard ratio 0.985, 95% CI 0.972-0.998, and p = 0.028), albumin (hazard ratio 0.945, 95% CI 0.906-0.985, and p = 0.008), creatinine (hazard ratio 1.002, 95% CI 1.001-1.003, and p = 0.001), eGFR (hazard ratio 0.985, 95% CI 0.977-0.992, and p < 0.001), and GNRI (hazard ratio 0.960, 95% CI 0.938-0.983, and p = 0.001).
The overall survival rate was significantly lower in the low GNRI group (log-rank p < 0.001).
Patient Characteristics according to GNRI. As shown in Table 1, the duration of diabetic foot ulcers was longer in the high GNRI group.
Figure 1 shows the distribution of GNRI in the DFU patients undergoing LEA in this study.
The independent association between GNRI and mortality was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model, which was conducted using stepwise regression.
From these GNRI values, four grades of nutrition-related risk were defined : high risk (<82), moderate risk (82 to <92), low risk (92-98), and no risk (>98).
GNRI = [1489 x albumin (g/L)] + [41.7 x (weight/WLo)], (1)
Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the predictive relationship between GNRI and prognosis among DFU patients undergoing LEA.
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- GnRH analog
- GnRH analogues
- GnRH antagonists
- GnRH stimulation test
- GnRH-Like Ovarian Hormone