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Any change in spatial structure of the stock (Pennington and Godp, 1995), such as the documented shoreward shifts of spiny dogfish (NEFSC3), can increase availability and catchability if fish density increases on commercial fishing grounds.
The effectiveness of a bottom trawl footrope, in relation to fish escapement beneath it (particularly in relation to escapement of flatfishes), can be affected by changes in the distance from the bottom during periods when it loses contact (Engas and Godp, 1989b; Walsh, 1992).
Of the environmental and operational factors that affect net geometry, towing depth, towing speed, warp length, and substrate type are most important (Godp and Engas, 1989; Weinberg and Kotwicki, 2008).