(2) Brilliant Pebbles (3) achieved or defined a clear path to most of the GPALS
objectives for boost-phase BMD.
would also seek to protect the United States, friends and
Reassured because the deterrent effect of its missile arsenal would remain intact for the time being, the Soviet Union (now Russia) welcomed the Bush administration's shift from SDI, which emphasized defense against large-scale attacks, to GPALS
, which emphasized defense against limited attacks.
program enjoyed a brief period of optimism but soon faded
It is not cheap, either--a billion dollars a year was planned for system integration in the GPALS
effort, and that was clearly not enough.
Gore criticized the governor's approach in an interview on July 20, alleging that Bush's "much larger, space-based Star Wars approach is far more difficult to design and build, far more expensive to purchase, less likely to work, and is calculated to destroy existing arms-control arrangements with the Russians." Gore's system would deploy 100--250 ground-based interceptors based at one or two sites, at a cost estimated at $60 billion (for comparison, the GPALS
system was estimated to cost $63 billion in 1992 dollars).
Accordingly; the program shifted to an emphasis on global protection against limited strikes (GPALS
), designed to handle up to a few hundred warheads.
Bush administration stepped back from SDI and proposed the Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (GPALS
) that comprised hundreds of ground-based intercepts.
Without an enduring base of support and military value, single-mission systems are likely to fall victim to partisan politics or budget reductions much as the Nike-Zeus, Sentinel, Spartan, Brilliant Pebbles, GPALs
, and NMD systems of the past.
As such, Brilliant Pebbles became the key integrating element of a concept known as global protection against limited strikes (GPALS
The Ballistic Missile Defense Organisation (BMDO) was formed in 1993, initially to lay the foundations for a Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (Gpals
In 1991, President George Bush announced, and Congress approved, a deployment plan called Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (GPALS