The challenge in dispersing graphene platelets in commodity and engineering thermoplastics during processing is the clue to the commercial success of GPNC development.
(94) Many commercial application opportunities for GPNC have recently begun to surface.
The creation of several start-ups that provide graphene materials--including XG Sciences, Graphene Energy, Angstrom Materials, Vorbeck Materials, Graphene Solutions, and Graphene Industries--confirms the commercial potential for graphene-based nanocomposites (GPNC).
On the other hand, Raman spectroscopy has not only been used to characterize graphene (103) and distinguish it from graphene with defects, it has also provided the key to understanding graphene edge chemistry (104) and to monitoring stress transfer efficiency in a GPNC. These studies could further open up new vistas for grapheme-based nanocomposites.
GPNC design could involve biodegradable polymeric systems (105) or stimuli-responsive polymeric systems.
The main challenge in designing graphene-based polymer nanocomposites (GPNCs) with improved properties is, therefore, to disperse the individual graphene sheets in the polymer matrix.