This included an outline of the study (including procedure and ethics), biographical details, background, and circumstances of their GSPE.
Such narratives are of interest to wider society and academics because GSPEs are common (Haraldsson & Houtkooper, 1991) and experiences often affect individuals (Blackmore, 1988; Nelson, 1990; White, 1990).
The present study identified the complex social processes which influence and structure understanding of GSPEs and give meaning to anomalous/unusual phenomena (Wilde & Murray, 2010).
For example, Sarah, Leanne, and Nick validate their GSPEs by referring to dreams ("I was just dreaming"), mental illness ("but with having psychosis I know that the mind can produce images"), and ghosts ("I opened the door and there was a figure moving into the kitchen area").
The Kuskokwim tributary survey unit was first proposed, designed, and partially surveyed in the winters of 2009 and 2010 using the GSPE technique; weather and lack of snow cover prevented completion of both surveys.
The GSPE technique recommends that surveys occur after fresh or moderately fresh snow with complete ground coverage (Gasaway et al.
2001) using a helicopter for several reasons: 1) the area tends to have marginal snow cover each year making it difficult to complete a GSPE, 2) a helicopter can fly lower and more slowly with better visibility than a fixed-wing aircraft, helping to compensate for minimal snow cover, 3) line-transects can "fit" in the narrow riparian corridors better than GSPE blocks that typically encompass large portions of non-moose habitat, 4) distance sampling incorporates sightability corrections (e.
These conditions can limit GSPE surveys along the lower Kwethluk and Kisaralik Rivers in any given year.
We considered ~20 cm of snow accumulation as moderate to good conditions, required for the standard GSPE survey method.
Comparison of the helicopter line-transect method with the GSPE method considers time, logistics, cost, and the estimate of precision.