GTP-CGeneral Packet Radio Service Tunnelling Protocol-Control
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Note that the size information does not include the extra GTP-C tunnel header size, which is presented in a separated column.
That is the delay of tunneling (constructing/extracting) of the messages in the attached SGW and PGW and also the delay of routing those messages (over the GTP-C) in the path between them.
It also includes the cost of constructing/extracting of messages in the first SGW and PGW and the cost of routing the tunneled messages (over GTP-C) in the path between them.
Similarly, [mathematical expression ] not reproducible] describes the cost of transferring only the M.B.Req/Res tunneled messages (over GTP-C) between the first attached SGW and PGW during eNodeB relocation or the target SGW and PGW for SGW relocation.
This is due to the fact that four messages in GTP and two messages in PMIP are exchanged (over GTP-C and GRE, respectively) between the SGWs and PGW.