GTP-UGeneral Packet Radio Service Tunnelling Protocol User
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Finally, create a socket transmission to support both control plane (GTP-C) and data plane (GTP-U).
As Figure 3(b) shows, during a handover between neighboring eNodeBs the GTP-U tunnel is updated, and if the handover is between neighboring SGWs both GTP-U and GTP-C (or GRE) are updated.
In both GTP and PMIP approaches the [mathematical expression ] not reproducible] includes (i) the delay of routing IP packets between CN and PGW; (ii) the delay of data packet encapsulation (over GTP-U or GRE) on PGW; (iii) the delay of routing the tunneled packets in the path between PGW and SGW; and (iv) the delay of data packet decapsulation in SGW.
[mathematical expression ] not reproducible] specifies the cost of routing regular IP packets from CN to PGW and the cost of tunneling (encapsulating) data packets over GTP-U or GRE in PGW.