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References in periodicals archive ?
'At about 3.00 p.m., the convoy arrived in Gumsa, where they remained till 5.00 p.m.
in the direction of Gumsa, where villagers say they arrived at about 9.00 p.m.
251: '(...) it was the trade in iron more than everything else which gave the early Jinghpaw power and which enabled the gumsa to become feudal satellites of the Shan rather than their serfs'.
Leach thus shows that the gumsa communities are not static or in a state of stable equilibrium.
The differences between relatively egalitarian and hierarchical communities and ideologies among the "Maloh" and other Dayak and Punan peoples and the integration of village-based populations into stratified Malay states based on the control of trade goods parallels the differences between Kachin "egalitarian", non-hereditary gumlao and "ranked" hereditary gumsa communities and their interrelationships with Shan feudal states.
In the southern area of the Triangle a vicious feud had developed between two factional alignments, one known as Gumlao and the other as Gumsa. Animosities remained, and those who co-operated with the British were fearful of reprisals.