GUUBGlobally Uniformly Ultimately Bounded
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However, the tracking errors are bounded, which means that the tracking errors for each follower are GUUB as proved in Theorem 20.
(3) Under the consideration that each follower is exposed to the EDPU, the actual control inputs are presented by using the SMC method in the dynamic loop design, which can guarantee that all the signals of the closed-loop system are GUUB and all the tracking errors eventually converge to a small neighborhood of the equilibrium point.
Hence, using global uniform ultimate boundedness (GUUB) stability [20], V is exponential convergence, and the tracking error e can converge to a closed ball domain