But brain circulation might also follow GVCs
where specialists and entrepreneurs oversee whole networks of variegated value creation and transfer.
The expansion of GVCs
has been pronounced in Asia, especially emerging Asia.
The relative strength of such global frontier firms likely reflects their capacity to both "innovate" and to optimally combine technological, organisational and human capital in production processes throughout global value chains (GVCs
) and harness the power of digitalisation to rapidly diffuse and replicate leading-edge ideas.
, there are a number of specific differences between higher-added value strategies and buyer-driven strategies.
at xxi ("GVCs
lead to a significant amount of double counting in trade, as intermediates are counted several times in world exports but should be counted only once as 'value added in trade.'").
. (8) During the 2000s, they became major exporters of intermediate
The extensive research through case studies--mainly in Latin America, Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa--uncovered that quasi-hierarchy is the predominant mode of governance resulting in a functional lock-in of firms and industrial clusters inserted in intermediate positions along the GVCs
. Although, quasi-hierarchy may enhance product and process upgrading (Humphrey and Schmitz, 2002).
16521), authors James Brander, Qianqian Du, and Thomas Hellmann compare the exit performance of commercial enterprises that obtained at least part of their funding from government sponsored venture capitalists (GVCs
) with those that received funding from only private venture capitalists (PVCs).
In the third article in this section, sociologist Gary Gereffi focuses on the global value chains (GVCs
) framework in Global Value Chains and International Competition.
It is in this broad context of an obsession with external orientation that one needs to bring into focus the growing phenomenon of participation of Indian SMEs in the global value chains (GVCs
'Owing to the escalation in US-China trade tensions, the global value chains (GVCs
) of major industries, including textile, are being disrupted and we can capitalize on this by realigning the GVCs
with our industrial hub,' he stressed.