GVIOGross Value of Industrial Output
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* Labor productivity is measured by the O/L ratio (where O is GVIO and L is the average number of workers).
It is interesting to note, however, that the state sector in 1998 produced 28.24% of GVIO with 57.25% of the labor force compared to about the same share of GVIO produced by 62.33% of the labor force in 1996 and, worse yet, 25.52% of GVIO with 65% of the labor force in 1997.
[[Alpha].sub.L] Q/W, where [a.sub.L] is the estimate of the labor coefficient, Q is real GVIO defined previously, and W is real internal wage.(10) The labour redundancy rate, LRR, is derived by subtracting the estimate of L* from the total number of year-end employees and dividing the difference by the total number of year-end employees.