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Cadmium was measured in urine and blood (erythrocyte fraction) samples collected from the children at 9 (hereafter referred to as concurrent) and 4.5 y of age and in the mothers at GW8 (urine) and 14 (blood).
In addition to cadmium, we have also measured the concentrations of arsenic in urine both in the children at 9 and 4.5 y of age and in their mothers at GW8 (Ahmed et al.
For instance, favorable alleles of SH1, NRT1.1B exist only in indica (Konishi et al., 2006; Hu et al., 2015a), while favorable alleles of GL7/GW7 and GW8 distribute mainly in tropical japonica (Wang et al., 2012b; Wang et al., 2015a, b).
To evaluate the association of prenatal (U-As at GW8) and childhood (U-As at 4.5 and 9 years of age) arsenic exposure with plasma total IgG, IgE, and IgA in the children at 9 years of age, we applied multivariable-adjusted linear regression.
The MMR-specific postimmunization plasma IgG in children at 9 years of age was evaluated in relation to arsenic exposures (U-As at GW8, 4.5 and 9 years of age) by quartiles of preimmunization MMR-specific plasma IgG levels.
We evaluated potential confounding by arsenic and lead exposure on the associations between cadmium and outcome by adding either maternal U-As or U-Pb (GW8; [log.sub.2]-transfomed), or children's concurrent U-As or U-Pb (log2-transfomed) to the variables defined in model 2.
Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (p-value) of associations between maternal U-Cd (GW8), concurrent U-Cd (5 years of age), and child developmental measures at 5 years of age (n = 1,305).
In brief, CHRWs collected GW8 urine samples during monthly home visits.
The mean body weight and height of women at GW8 were 45.0 [+ or -] 6.6 kg and 149.6 [+ or -] 5.2 cm, respectively, and about one-third of women were malnourished (BMI < 18.5 kg/[m.sup.2]).
RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted models, maternal urinary As (U-As) exposure both at GW8 and at GW30 was significantly positively associated with placental markers of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) and interleukin-1[beta] (IL-1[beta]); U-As at GW8, with tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] (TNF[alpha]) and interferon-[gamma] (IFN[gamma]); and U-As at GW30, with leptin; U-As at GW8 was inversely associated with [CD3.sup.+] T cells in the placenta.
Once pregnancy was identified, usually during gestational weeks (GW) 6-10 (mean, GW8), women were advised to visit a health facility in their area for confirmation of pregnancy by ultrasound and for antenatal care.