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Not all extant Oceanic languages retain reflexes of both *w[a.sup.[eta]]ga and *sar(i)man, but as shown above, PT languages do, as an example of which MacGillivray (1852: 321-2) recorded 'waga' (canoe), 'sarima (float),' and 'doro' (sail) together at Brumer Island, correspondences to GYim's contact words w[a.sup.[eta]]ga and tharrman and Flinders Island thorro.
(26) This indicates that, even though an open-syllable bias was already active in the PPT founder language or dialect cluster, it was less advanced than now (and had it not been, the existence of GYim tharrman would require that other POc speakers with closed syllables appeared in southeast CYP prior to the PPT split from POc).
Of the following words, the first set are variants of the same PT word as GYim tharrman, but less archaic, the second is of likely PT origin, and the third may be so but is more likely of ISEA origin:
To the north and south of GYim, the Oceanic loans fade-out and are replaced by local words, indicating that these areas are downstream of initial canoe introduction.
Hence Austronesian contact and canoe diffusion has been concentrated in two areas: in the GYim region and perhaps Flinders Island, and in the TS-Cape York area.
Because GYim tharrman is an earlier derivation from PMP *(c,s)a(R)man than the WCL, Meriam, and Gudang derivatives of PT sarima, the arrival of the latter in the Strait region must post-date the arrival of *sarman thence tharrman in GYim.
Stone is another possibility, given that Laade (1973) was told at Mer in the eastern TS that TS parties travelled to Lizard Island in the GYim part of southeast CYP to trade for lithics-quality stone, raising the question of whether they inherited a trade circuit established much earlier by PT speakers.
Roth (1910:14) says that at Cape Bedford, a special timber called 'dadetchin' in GYim was used for the pegs, 'while the floats are cut from a peculiarly light wood caste up on the beach and preserved until required'.
GYim speaker Frank Deemal (pc to Wood, October 2017) has recently confirmed them with me.
GYim jirimathi 'small sparrow bird (sp.)';jirimandi 'coconut; garriman 'spearthrower'; mirrimbal 'cockatoo crest' (Haviland 2017:15, 25).
Likewise, Umpithamu wayngkarrangka 'canoe,' derived from Proto-Paman walngga 'belly,' could superficially suggest that GYim wangga might descend from a related proto-form (idem:478).
(23.) Many Pama-Nyungan languages further south have a bilabial fricative allophone of b, but it appears that GYim does not.