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Although GJCs in immune cells were described in the early 70s by Hulser and Peters who reported gap junctional communication between T cells [81,82], the study of Cxs in APCs had to wait until the end of the decade when expression of GJCs and gap junctional communication was shown in macrophages [88, 89].
Similar to TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta] alone does not induce gap junctional communication or Cxs expression but, in combination with TNF-[alpha], induces GJCs and increases Cx43 and Cx45 levels in DCs (Table 1) .
From the GJCs perspective, IL-6 has an anti-inflammatory effect because it prevents the TNF-[alpha]/IL-[beta]- and TNF-[alpha]/IL-[beta]/IFN-[gamma]-induced gap junctional communication in DCs .
ECM-induced gap junctional communication enhances mammary epithelial cell differentiation.
Epidermal growth factor stimulates the disruption of gap junctional communication and connexin43 phosphorylation independent of 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetatesensitive protein kinase C: the possible involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase.
Regulation of gap junctional communication
by a pro-inflammatory cytokine in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-expressing but not cystic fibrosis airway cells.
Under inflammatory conditions, gap junctional communication between cultured astrocytes is reduced, whereas the activity of HCs is increased [35-38].
In this work, we studied the effect of extracellular ATP on the cytokine-induced gap junctional communication in microglia.