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Abbreviations: HFD, high-fat diet; 2-NBDG, 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol- 4-yl) amino)-2-deoxyglucose; AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; AKT/PKB, protein kinase B; AS160, Akt substrate of 160 kDa; GLUT1, translocation of glucose transporter 1; IRS-1, insulin receptor substrate; LKB1, liver kinase B1; GSK- 3[beta], glycogen synthase kinase
3[beta]; FoxO1, forkhead box O1; G6Pase, glucose-6- phosphatase; PEPCK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; IR, insulin resistance; HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.
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* Aripiprazole inhibits glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and, in contrast to haloperidol, increases BDNF, glycogen synthase kinase
(GSK)-1[beta], and the anti-apoptotic protein Bc1-2.
Numerous kinases can phosphorylate tau, including cyclin-dependent kinases , glycogen synthase kinase
3 (GSK3) , microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK) , [Ca.sup.2+]/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) , protein kinase A (PKA) , and members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family including ERK2  and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) [26, 27].
By blocking the so-called SMAD signaling pathway and inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase
3 beta (GSK3B), they increased the transformational efficiency by several times--and were thus able to even simplify the means of extraction.
 Nonstandard abbreviations: miRNA or miR, microRNA; 3'-UTR, 3'-untranslated region; HIF, hypoxia-inducible factor; AR, androgen receptor; PI3K/Akt, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase; CDK1B, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B; GSK3B, glycogen synthase kinase
3 beta; PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog; PSA, prostate-specific antigen; VHL, von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor; HIF1A, hypoxia inducible factor 1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; FGFR3, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3.